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So, there will be no binding agreement in Copenhagen. It does not matter. A binding formal agreement is the least important thing in the whole process – especially since, binding or not, enforcement of such an agreement is going to hinge on informal arrangements. What a binding agreement does is to formalize an already arrived at consensus. How you arrive at the consensus is another matter. The challenge of climate is of course this: Nature is not going to send us clear signals that underscore our common interests until it is too late. So one challenge is going to be whether, and how, to create enough of an international consensus to sway dissenters. One thing to keep in mind, it does not have to be an all or none matter – despite the claims of the Tragedy of the Commons. For more on this see my article in Climatic Change 2009 97:59-65. Here is a link to the paper: http://sites.google.com/site/mbunzl/toc